Optical fibers did not only revolutionize our telecommunication, but also had a big impact on astronomical instrumentation. In this talk the basics of fiber optics are presented and its relevance for astronomy is discussed. The various applications in astronomical instrumentation, high-resolution spectrographs, multi-object and integral field spectroscopy, etc. are presented. The talk will focus on the benefits and remaining problems of fiber optics for current and future high-resolution spectrographs. As an outlook it is shown how the combination of fiber optics or more general, photonics and astronomy can further boost the capabilities of astronomical instruments.